Safety in Numbers

Chapter 5

Notes

1. Michael Callen, "AIDS is a gay disease!", PWA Coalition Newsline issue 42, March 1989.

2. Simon Watney, 'Powers of Observation: AIDS & the writing of history', Practices of Freedom, Rivers Oram, London, 1993.

3. Jeffrey Weeks, "AIDS: The Intellectual Agenda", AIDS: Social Representations, Social Practices (ed. Aggleton, Hart & Davies), Falmer Press, London, 1989.

4. Virginia Berridge and Philip Strong, "AIDS Policies in the United Kingdom: A Preliminary Analysis", AIDS: The Making of a Chronic Disease (eds. Fee and Fox), University of California Press, 1992.

5. Antony Vass, AIDS: A Plague In Us (Venus Academica, London) p.44, 1986.

6. "�4m for AIDS blood checks", Daily Mail 16th March 1985, reported in Antony Vass, op.cit.

7. Jeffrey Weeks, op.cit.

8. "�20m campaign to educate public about Aids scourge", The Times, 22nd November 1986.

9. Thomson Prentice, "4,000 doomed to die of Aids, Fowler warns", The Times, 9th January 1987.

10. Peter Hildrew, "Fowler launches TV and cinema Aids campaign", The Guardian, 9th January 1987.

11. Randy Shilts, And The Band Played On, Penguin, London, 1988.

12. C. Everett Koop, Surgeon General's Report on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, US Public Health Service, 1986.

13. Andrew Veitch, "How to avoid catching Aids", The Guardian, 21st November 1986.

14. MJR Healy, "Summing Up", Future Trends in AIDS, HMSO, London, 1987.

15. Department of Health and the Welsh Office, Short-term prediction of HIV infection and AIDS in England and Wales, HMSO, London, 1988.

16. Public Health Laboratory Service Working Group, "Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in England and Wales to end 1993. Projections using data to end September 1989", Communicable Disease Report, January 1990.

17. Dr Anne Johnson, "The Epidemiology of HIV in the UK: Sexual Transmission", HIV & AIDS: An assessment of current and future spread in the UK, Proceeding of the Symposium held on Friday 24th November 1989, Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, Westminster, London, UK Health Departments & Health Education Authority, London, 1989.

18. "Questions and discussion. 5. Prospects for the UK: following a presentation by Professor Roy Anderson", HIV & AIDS: An assessment of current and future spread in the UK, Proceeding of the Symposium held on Friday 24th November 1989, Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, Westminster, London, UK Health Departments & Health Education Authority, London, 1989.

19. Simon Watney, "Taking Liberties: an Introduction" Taking Liberties: AIDS and Cultural Politics (eds. Carter & Watney), Serpent's Tail, London, 1989.

20. See, for example, Dr Anne Johnson op.cit., or "Incidence of new AIDS cases. 3.5 Some non-exponential growth patterns" in the Cox Report (Department of Health and the Welsh Office op.cit.)

21. Dr Anne Johnson, op.cit.

22. Virginia Berridge & Philip Strong, op.cit. I am grateful to Keith Alcorn for drawing this to my attention.

23. Quoted in Andrew Veitch, "Anti-Aids publicity gets �10m extra", The Guardian, 22nd November 1986.

24. Virginia Berridge, "AIDS, the Media and Health Policy", AIDS: Rights, Risk and Reason (eds.Aggleton, Davies & Hart), Falmer Press, London, 1992.

25. Virginia Berridge, op.cit. See also Antony Vass, op.cit.

26. Antony Vass, op.cit.

27. C Doyle, "AIDS will 'erupt' in major cities", The Observer, 21st April 1985.

28. Andrew Veitch, "Symptoms of Aids", The Guardian, 16th May 1985.

29. Cindy Patton, Inventing AIDS, Routledge, London, 1990.

30. Antony Vass, op.cit.

31. See, for example, Department of Health and Social Security, 'Quarterly AIDS Figures', press release, 11th July 1988.

32. "Trend in exposure category distribution (%) of HIV-1 infected persons: reported to 30 June 1992 England Wales and N.Ireland", Unpublished Quarterly Tables No. 16, June 1992, Table 11, PHLS AIDS Centre B Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, and Communicable Diseases (Scotland) Unit.

33. Department of Health and Social Security, op.cit., 1988.

34. Department of Health, 'Quarterly AIDS Figures', press release, 15th October 1990.

35. I should like to thank Christine Murphy of the PHLS for providing me with this figure. 36. Simon Watney, "Le 'fighting spirit' des gays anglais", Le Journal du SIDA 38/39: 18-22, 1992.

37. Thomson Prentice "Aids virus infection by normal sex rises", The Times, London, 22nd January 1991.

38. "AIDS risk growing for girls", Daily Mirror, London, 22nd January 1991.

39. Celia Hall, "Aids spread greatest in heterosexual community", The Independent, London, 22nd January 1991.

40. Eben Black, "MUMS-TO-BE IN NEW AIDS STUNNER", The Sun, London, 22nd January 1991.

41. Department of Health, 'Quarterly AIDS Figures', press release, 21st January 1991.

42. I should like to thank Simon Watney for drawing this example to my attention. He discusses it in his article "Le 'fighting spirit' des gays anglais", op.cit., 1992.

43. Department of Health, "Virginia Bottomley announces first results of anonymised HIV testing", press release, 17th May 1991.

44. James Cusick, "Heterosexual intercourse 'commonest HIV source'", The Independent, London, 11th September 1992.

45. Communicable Diseases (Scotland) Unit, 'Monitoring the spread and impact of HIV infection in Scotland, 1982-1991', AIDS: Scotland, 7 (1992).

46. "Trends in exposure category distribution (%) of HIV-1 infected persons: reports to 30 September 1992 Scotland", Unpublished Quarterly Tables 17, September 1992, Table 12, PHLS AIDS Centre - Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, and Communicable Diseases (Scotland) Unit.

47. Ibid.

48. 'UK Statistics: AIDS', AIDS Newsletter 7(2):2 item 75, London, 1992.

49. Department of Health & Social Security, "Are You At Risk From AIDS?" full page advertisement, The Guardian, London, 17th March 1986; 'AIDS. How To Keep Yourself Safe', full page advertisement, Capital Gay, London, 11th April 1986.

50. Virginia Berridge & Philip Strong, op.cit.

51. Simon Watney, "Visual AIDS B Advertising Ignorance", Social Aspects of AIDS (eds. Aggleton & Homans), Falmer Press, London 1988. Typical advertisement slogans included "How to stop yourself dying for sex" - the answer was "have as few partners as possible" - and "Now it can cause death as well as life" ("Any contraceptive can prevent a new life from starting. But only a condom can prevent your death").

52. Andrew Veitch, "Aids deaths rise by 18 as cases double", The Guardian, London, 5th December 1986.

53. Simon Watney, Policing Desire, Methuen, London, 1987. See also Watney's analysis of the role of government campaigns in inducing exaggerated perceptions of the risk of HIV infection in the population at large: 'People's perceptions of the risk of Aids and the role of the mass media', Health Education Journal 46(2): 62-65, 1987.

54. "Currie's handy AIDS tip", The Sun, London, 13th February 1987.

55. "Homosexuals and drug addicts target of next campaign", The Guardian, London, 11th March 1987.

56. "Aids response 'inadequate' says Terrence Higgins Trust", Gay Times issue 88, London, December 1985; "Battles ahead for 'safe sex' health campaign", Gay Times issue 91, London, April 1986.

57. David McKie, "Hayhoe advises on Aids", The Guardian, London, 30th September 1985.

58. Zo� Schramm-Evans, "Responses to AIDS: 1986-1987" in AIDS: Individual, Cultural and Policy Dimensions (eds. Aggleton, Davies & Hart), p.226, Falmer Press, London, 1990.

59. "HEC prepares for its new role within the NHS", Health Education News issue 62, January-February 1987.

60. Health Education News, issue 62, London, January-February 1987.

61. Quoted in ",20m campaign to educate public about AIDS scourge", The Times, London, 22nd November 1986.

62. "Health agency in rift with Whitehall over use of TV", The Times, London, 28th October 1988.

63. Celia Hall, "Health education body 'loses independence'", The Independent, London, 16th May 1989.

64. "Aids chief attacks gay rights 'lunatics'", Capital Gay, London, 8th March 1987.

65. Annalena McAfee, "Face to face with the new AIDS threat", Evening Standard, London, 21st February 1989.

66. Health Education Authority, 'AIDS campaign B latest phase', press release, 14th February 1990.

67. Health Education Authority, 'Experts' television and press advertisement campaign, 14th February to 31st March 1990.

68. See Chapter 6.

69. Virginia Bottomley, 'Closing address', HIV & AIDS: An assessment of current and future spread in the UK, Proceeding of the Symposium held on Friday 24th November 1989, Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, Westminster, London, p.40, UK Health Departments & Health Education Authority, London, 1989.

70. Edward King, "Who's Really At Risk?" The Pink Paper, issue 217, London, 15th March 1992.

71. Graham Thomas, AIDS Education Resource and HIV Simulation Game, 2nd edition, Daniels Publishing, Cambridge, 1992.

72. Cindy Patton, op.cit.

73. Larry Kramer, "An Open Letter to Richard Dunne", reprinted in Reports from the Holocaust: The Making of an AIDS Activist, Penguin, London, 1989.

74. Tony Whitehead, "The Voluntary Sector B Five Years On", in Taking Liberties - AIDS and Cultural Politics (eds. Carter & Watney), Serpents Tail, London, 1989.

75. Cindy Patton, op.cit.

76. Robin Hardy, "Die Harder: AIDS Activism Is Abandoning Gay Men", Village Voice, New York, 2nd July 1991.

77. John Lewis, "Fears of anti-'gay' backlash over Aids", Sunday Telegraph, London, 16th November 1986.

78. Reported in Andrew Veitch, "Aids briefings for opposition spokesmen stopped by ministers despite Fowler plea", The Guardian, London, 18th November 1986.

79. "Lords seek ban on schools' promotion of homosexuality", The Guardian, London, 19th December 1986.

80. "Secret group of MPs say: 'close the gay bars'", Capital Gay, London, 29th November 1985.

81. Simon Watney, Policing Desire, Methuen, London, 1987.

82. Antony Vass, op.cit.

83. Quoted by Cindy Patton, "Illness as weapon", Gay Community News, Boston, 30th June 1984.

84. Stuart Byron, "Truth and Consequence: Puncturing the Myth of Heterosexual AIDS", The Advocate, Los Angeles, 27th February 1990.

85. Ibid.

86. Ray Amer, A Survey on AIDS and HIV Prevention, South West London Gay Organisations, London, 1987.

87. Ibid. p.14.

88. Ibid. p.25

89. Edward King, Michael Rooney and Peter Scott, HIV Prevention for Gay Men: A Survey of Initiatives in the UK, North-West Thames Regional Health Authority HIV Project, London, 1992.

90. Peter Scott, 'Community development and the challenges of the HIV crisis', paper presented at Action for Change - Community Development Approaches for the HIV Crisis conference, London, July 1991.

91. Men Who Have Sex With Men: Project Summary (3) September 1989, Health Education Authority, London, 1989.

92. Lottie Pollak, unpublished report, 1989.

93. Peter Gordon, Safer Sex Education Workshops for Gay and Bisexual Men, 1989 (unpublished). Parts of this review were published in Men Who Have Sex With Men: Action In the Community (MESMAC) 1st Report, Health Education Authority, London, 1991.

94. Ibid.

95. Men Who Have Sex With Men: Action In the Community (MESMAC) 1st Report, Health Education Authority, London, 1991.

96. Statistics from Alan Prout, 'MESMAC evaluation' speech at MESMAC: Community, Contacts and Collective Action conference, London, 23rd January 1993. The work of the MESMAC sites is documented in a number of reports published by the Health Education Authority in London. They have also compiled a useful MESMAC DIY Guide to provide a reference point for workers in the field.

97. Virginia Berridge and Philip Strong, "AIDS Policies in the United Kingdom: A Preliminary Analysis" in AIDS: The Making of a Chronic Disease, pp.306, University of California Press, 1992.

98. Nick Partridge, chief executive of the Terrence Higgins Trust: comments at press conference, June 1992.

99. Mike Paxton, AIDS: The Leaflet - 'Safer Sex For Gay Men'. Debrief Notes: The findings from A Qualitative Research Study. The Research Practice, London, December 1990.

100. Edward King, "The Seven Deadly Sins of the HEA", The Pink Paper issue 230, London, 14th June 1992.

101. Privileged communication.

102. Andrew Saxton, "HEA says 'Fuck'", Capital Gay issue 559, London, 28th August 1992.

103. 'The Government's Strategy on HIV and AIDS Education', poster, Department of Health, London, 1992.

104. Aileen Ballantyne, "Gay ads dismay Aids charity", The Guardian, London, 7th February 1989.

105. Edward King, op.cit.

106. "AIDS budget slashed", The Pink Paper issue 214, London, 1st March 1992. These figures were printed in the gay press on a number of occasions, and reproduced in publicity material produced by Gay Men Fighting AIDS, without challenge from the HEA. However, their repetition in the June 1992 issue of Body Positive Newsletter prompted a letter from Lindsay Neill, manager of the HEA's HIV/AIDS and Sexual Health Programme, to the newsletter editor on 30th July 1992, alleging that the article contained unspecified "inaccurate information".

107. Mark Perrow, "Anatomy of an advertising disaster", Capital Gay issue 545, London, 22nd May 1992.

108. Jonathan Grimshaw, letter of behalf of HEA Men who have sex with men Project Advisory Group to Sir Donald Maitland, Health Education Authority chairman, 13th February 1992.

109. 'Gays quit top health authority', Capital Gay issue 532, p.9, London, 21st February 1992.

110. Ibid.

111. Corinne Camilleri-Ferrante and Martin Kochanski, AIDS, p.8, The Bow Group, London, 1987.

112. House of Commons, Problems Associated with AIDS (Third Report from the Social Services Committee, Session 1986-1987, paragraph 65.

113. Arguments about the MWHSWM terminology are summarised in Peter Scott's "Beginning HIV Prevention Work with Gay and Bisexual Men", in Healthy Alliances in HIV Prevention (eds. Evans, Sandberg & Watson), Health Education Authority, London, 1993.

114. See Edward King, Michael Rooney & Peter Scott, HIV Prevention for Gay Men: A Survey of Initiatives in the UK, North-West Thames Regional Health Authority, London, 1992. This is described in detail in Chapter 7.

115. Peter Scott, op.cit., 1993.

116. MESMAC Tyneside, A Report on the Distribtuion of Free Condoms and Lubricant in Gay Bars in Newcastle-upon-Tyne (ed. Miller), Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1993, describes a specific example of this phenomenon as recognised and rectified by workers on a 'men who have sex with men' project.

117. See Susan Kippax et al. "The Importance of Gay Community in the Prevention of HIV Transmission: A Study of Australian Men Who Have Sex with Men", AIDS: Rights, Risk and Reason (eds. Aggleton, Davies & Hart), Falmer Press, London, 1992.

118. Peter Scott, op.cit. 1993.

119. Ibid.

120. Eric E Rofes, "Gay Lib vs. AIDS: Averting Civil War in the 1990s", OUT/LOOK 2(4), San Francisco, Spring 1990.

121. Ibid.

122. This reason was cited by 18% of British statutory health agencies surveyed in Edward King, Michael Rooney & Peter Scott, HIV Prevention for Gay Men: A Survey of Initiatives in the UK, (North-West Thames Regional Health Authority, London, 1992). In reality, "we found this generally not to be an accurate picture of local provision".

123. Described in Virginia Berridge & Philip Strong, op.cit.

124. Described in Zoe Schramm-Evans, "Responses to AIDS: 1986-1987", AIDS: Individual, Cultural and Policy Dimensions, Falmer Press, London, 1990.

125. John Eldridge, "Assessing the gay Durex market" (letter), Capital Gay, London, 25th January 1985.

126. Julian Meldrum, "Barefoot Doctors and Safety Pins", Capital Gay, London, 8th November 1985.

127. Ibid.

128. Peter Weatherburn and Andrew Hunt, HIV education: the effect on the sexual behaviour of gay men, Project SIGMA Working Paper Number 30, Project SIGMA, London.

129. Thames Television, The Facts About A.I.D.S. leaflet, London, October 1986.

130. Ibid.

131. Tony Whitehead, "Gay Men's Health Promotion B an Historical Overview", speech at Risks Worth Taking conference, December 1991, pr�cised in Risks Worth Taking (ed. Michael Rooney), North-West Thames Regional Health Authority, London, March 1992.

132. Tony Whitehead, op.cit.

133. Zoe Schramm-Evans, op.cit.

134. Tony Whitehead, op.cit.

135. Virginia Berridge & Philip Strong, op.cit.

136. Zoe Schramm-Evans, op.cit.

137. Simon Watney, personal communication. Tony Whitehead confirms that stressing the dangers of a large heterosexual epidemic was both a political necessity and a reflection of epidemiological opinion at the time (personal communication, February 1993).

138. "Aids response 'inadequate; says Terrence Higgins Trust", Gay Times, issue 88, London, December 1985; "NOT A PENNY! Gay groups ignored in fight against Aids", Capital Gay, London, 6th December 1985.

139. See Tim Clark, "Safe Sex", Time Out, London, 21st B 28th January 1987.

140. Tony Whitehead, op.cit.

141. Adam Carr, "World War 3", Outrage, Australia, January 1990.

142. Tony Whitehead, op.cit.

143. Personal communication, February 1993.

144. Ibid.

145. Personal communication, February 1993.

146. Simon Watney, 'Laocoon', Square Peg, London, issue 15, pp.26-27, 1987.

147. Julian Meldrum, "Power Points", Capital Gay, London, 14th December 1984.

148. Graham Turner, "Is There A Homosexual Conspiracy?", Sunday Telegraph, London, 5th June 1988.

149. Typical of the unsympathethic reporting of the Trust's work generated by this leaflet was William Oddie, 'Sticking to the stated aims', The Daily Telegraph, p.19, London, 7th May 1991.

150. Tony Whitehead, personal communication, February 1993.

151. Quoted in Suzie MacKenzie, "Rallying to a common cause", The Guardian, London, 6th March 1991.

152. Quoted in Jane Hardy, 'An unusual job for a pensioner', The Guardian, London, 26th February 1992.

153. Meurig Horton, Peter Scott, Simon Watney, personal communications, 1993.

154. Robin Gorna (Manager of Education and Information at the Trust), The Terrence Higgins Trust's work with gay men - a historical review, speech at Terrence Higgins Trust press conference, 30th November 1992. Others, however, disagree: according to Nick Partridge (Chief Executive of the Trust), "The Terrence Higgins Trust is one of the few agencies to have consistently run safer sex campaigns for gay men throughout the epidemic" [Press release "Terrence Higgins Trust launches new safer sex initiative for World AIDS Day", 30th November 1992].

155. Tony Whitehead, personal communication, February 1993.

156. Department of Health press release, November 1988.

157. This author held that post from 1990 until 1992.

158. Edward King, Michael Rooney & Peter Scott, HIV Prevention for Gay Men: A Survey of Initiatives in the UK, North-West Thames Regional Health Authority, London, 1992. This is discussed in detail in Chapter 7.

159. Tony Whitehead, op.cit.

160. Peter Scott, quoted in Simon Watney, "The Killing Fields of Europe" Outrage, pp.44-47, Melbourne, Australia, July 1992.

161. Ibid.

162. Edward King, "Embarrassing Comparison", The Pink Paper issue 195, London, 5th October 1991.

163. Simon Watney, op.cit.

164. This section is based extensively on Dennis Altman, 'The Most Political of Diseases', in AIDS in Australia (eds. Timewell, Minichiello & Plummer), Prentice Hall, Australia, 1992, pp.55-72.

165. Adam Carr, 'When We Were Very Young: The early years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Victoria', National AIDS Bulletin (Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations), July 1992, pp.15-17.

166. Dennis Altman, op.cit., p.56.

167. Ibid. p.63.

168. Ibid. p.64.

169. Quoted in ibid., p.55.

170. See GW Dowsett, 'The Sociological Context', in 'The Most Political of Diseases', in AIDS in Australia (eds. Timewell, Minichiello & Plummer), Prentice Hall, Australia, 1992, pp.87-107.

171. Martyn Goddard, "The hidden 500", Sydney Star Observer, 1992.

172. Adam Carr, 'VAC and ACON on HIV testing', Outrage, pp.54-55, Australia, March 1990.

173. Adam Carr, 'Heterosexuals and AIDS: why do we bother?', Outrage, pp.58-59, Australia, November 1990. Similar arguments are made by Ross Duffin, 'Homophobia and AIDS', Journal of the Victorian AIDS Council, Australia, issue 14, pp.3,21, Summer 1990.

174. Cindy Patton, Inventing AIDS, Routledge, London, 1990.

175. Michael Helquist, "Heterosexuals Go on Alert - But Ignore Valuable Gay Experience", The Advocate, Los Angeles, 14th April 1987.

176. Conference papers, Promoting Sexual Health: the Second International Workshop on Preventing the Sexual Transmission of HIV and Other STDs, Robinson College, Cambridge, England, 24th - 27th March 1991.

177. Peter Davies, "Report of Working Group: Men who have Sex with Men", Promoting Sexual Health: Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Cambridge, 24-27 March 1991, (ed. Hilary Curtis), Health Education Authority & British Medical Association (BMA) Foundation for AIDS, London, 1992.

178. See the discussion in Chapter 3.

179. Terrence Higgins Trust, "AIDS organisations respond to government guidelines on HIV testing and partner notification", undated press release issued on 16th December 1992. It is doubtless significant that the views of the Trust's health education staff were ignored in the writing of the release (personal communication).

180. John Thompson, speech at Risks Worth Taking conference, Birmingham, 4th March 1992.

181. Keith Alcorn, 'inSIGHT: Europride B in the wrong city?', Capital Gay issue 550, p.33, 26th June 1992.

182. JB Brunet, Director of the Centre Europ�en pour la Surveillance Epid�miologique du SIDA, reported in the Global AIDS Policy Coalition's AIDS in the World (eds. Mann, Tarantola & Netter), Harvard University Press, Massachusetts, 1992, p. 385.

183. Quoted in Simon Watney, "Re-Gaying Aids", Gay Times, London, March 1990.